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Spark Ignition and Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines

Since June 2008 and even recently as of March 2011, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed and published rules that regulate emission limitations and operating limitations of reciprocating internal combustion engines (RICE).  EPA’s rules provide regulatory coverage for RICE, weather the engine is (new or existing) spark ignition or compression ignition located at a major and or minor source. Typically major sources are covered by MACT standards and small or minor sources are covered by Area Source rules.  Since there is a wide range of SI and CI engine types, sizes and services, in this instance, the RICE rules contain coverage for major and minor (small) sources.  SBEAP will focus its discussion on minor (a.k.a. - area) sources.   An area source of hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions is a stationary source that does not emit or have the potential to emit 10 tons per year or more of any single HAP or 25 tons per year or more of any combination of HAP, while major sources do have this potential.  As an owner or operator, you might initially determine applicability of a RICE rule by review of the attached applicability flow chart.  Further, a requirements chart is provided to help you summarize what is needed if you determine one of the RICE rules apply to your facility operation.  Lastly, below is a brief discussion by date and title of each issuance of a RICE rule and its intended focus.

Applicability

Review the attached applicability flow chart to help determine if your RICE (SI or CI) may be impacted by one of EPA’s RICE rules.

Existing Spark Ignition (SI) RICE

** Attention ** On August 20, 2010, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published in the Federal Register the final rule regarding National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) for existing Spark Ignition (SI) Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (RICE) located at area sources (and major sources) of hazardous air pollutants (HAP).  While the rule applies to all existing SI RICE of any rating at area sources, it also covers existing Spark Ignition (SI) RICE with a site rating of 500 HP (or less) located at major sources.  EPA’s rule for existing Spark Ignition (SI) RICE became effective on October 19, 2010.  RICE engines that are in operation with 500 or less brake horsepower at area sources of HAP emissions or used for emergency power are required to be in compliance by May 3, 2013.  Owners and operators are required to have certain engines tested and certified. To review the rule for additional details, please see RICE rule for existing SI sources published at EPA’s website.

Amendments

On March 9, 2011, the EPA published amendments to the above cited rule.  The intent of the amendments was to resolve a requirements issue regarding continuous parameter monitoring systems (CPMS).

Existing Compression Ignition (CI) RICE

** Attention **  On March 3, 2010 EPA published a final rule regarding NESHAP(s) for existing stationary Compression Ignition (CI) RICE of engines with a site rating of 500 HP (or less) and non-emergency CI RICE greater than 500 HP at major sources and CI RICE of any site rating located at area sources. To review the rule for additional details, please see RICE rule for existing CI sources published at EPA’s website.

** Final Area Source Rule for New SI and CI RICE engines**

Notice to Manufacturers and Owners of New and reconstructed SI and CI RICE Engines at Area Sources

On January 18, 2008, the EPA made effective a combined final rule regarding new source performance standards (NSPS) for new stationary Spark Ignition (SI) engines and National Emission Standards Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) for new Compression Ignition (CI) Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (RICE) located at area sources of hazardous air pollutants (HAP).  RICE engines that are in operation with 500 or less brake horsepower at area sources of HAP emissions or used for emergency power has a compliance date of July 1, 2008 or at start-up. Owners and operators are required to have certain engines tested and certified. For additional details, please see SI/RICE rule published at EPA’s website.

Initial Notification

Affected sources are required to submit an initial notification that identifies their facility and location and the portion of the rule that impacts there operation. For your review and use (if needed) is a sample Initial Notice.

Assistance Tools

Also, to view additional assistance, implementation and compliance tools you may visit EPA’s website at http://www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/rice/ricepg.html.   Near the bottom is the Regulation Navigation Tool, which simplifies how to determine requirements for specific engines.  Attached is a summary table of Subpart ZZZZ requirements.

The New Performance standards for stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines and National Emission Standards Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (RICE) rule is for new or reconstructed engines, for which you began construction on or after June 12, 2006.  For more information, see the SI RICE Rule at EPA’s website.

For more information about Tennessee's Small Business Environmental Assistance Program, please contact the program at 1-800-734-3619 or by email at bgsbeap@tn.gov.